Definition of cybernetics. Interdisciplinary aspects and developments of cybernetics. Norbert Wiener and Alan Turing. Generality about control and communication, learning machines, Turing test, artificial intelligence, expert systems. Generality and classification of the systems. Linear and time invariant systems (LTI systems): mathematical representation and the time domain characterization. Coasting and forced response. Green function method. Responses in time domain (impulse and step). Characterization of LTI systems in frequency domain. Symbolic method. Series and Fourier transform. Laplace transform. Transfer function. Representation of transfer functions in the s domain. Systems with distributed constants. Representation of transfer functions in the domain of s. Relations between the diagrams of amplitude and phase. Minimum phase systems, Bode's law. Asymptotic behavior of the transfer functions in the frequency domain. Graphics representation by using Nyquist and Bode diagrams. Introduction to MATLAB programming language with particular regard to the functions of the Control System Toolbox. LTI system representation by state space method. System identification. Identification in frequency-domain and time domain. Identification by Bode plots, by direct inspection and by method of Prony. Feedback and control systems: introduction, negative and positive feedback, the transfer function. Stability criteria: closed-loop open loop. Stability margins. Performance and error rate in control systems. Design techniques. Probability theory: definitions, conditional odds, compound experiments. Random variables, functions of a random variable , functions of several random variables. Stochastic processes. Correlation functions. Measure of the correlation functions. Power spectra. Time invariant processes. Ergodic processes. Markov processes. Information theory: definitions. Source, channel, receiver. Shannon theorems, discrete channel with noise, continuous channel with noise.
The course of study aims at providing an advanced training in Physics, with knowledge of specialized subjects of recent research in Physics, in particular in the area of Electronics and Cybernetics. The educational objectives include advanced knowledge of the techniques of regulation and control of the response of linear systems.
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Students must have an in-depth understanding of the problems related to the feedback control of the response of a linear system to different types of stress. These skills are obtained through lectures. The verification of knowledge and understanding is done through oral tests.
APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Students must be able to identify the essential elements of a complex physical problem in the field of regulation and control of a linear system and know how to model them, making the necessary approximations.
They must be able to adapt existing models to new experimental data.
Students must be able to independently perform experiments, calculations or numerical simulations. They must develop the ability to perform bibliographic searches and to select interesting materials, in particular on the WEB. They must be able to take responsibility for both project planning and facility management. They must achieve an adequate level of ethical awareness in research and in professional activities. These skills are acquired during the study for the preparation of the exams, deepening some specific topics also with the consultation of articles in journals.
Students must be able to work in an interdisciplinary group. They must be able to present their research or the results of a bibliographic search to an audience of both specialists and laymen.
Students must be able to tackle new problems through independent study. They must acquire the ability to continue their studies in a research doctorate or other graduate schools.