Ionizing Radiation for Medical Physics


course ID

Lecturer

CFU

6

Length

14 Weeks

Semester DD

First


Course details

INTRODUCION
Review of the interaction processes between radiation and matter focusing on the crucial aspects for medical physics.

RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES
X ray tube, hell effect, energy spectrum. X ray imaging, film, intesifying screens, greeds.
Special techinques: Mammography, high contrast radiography, fluoroscopy, DS Angiography, dual energy radiography.
Computed tomography: principle of CT imaging and image reconstruction. CT scanner, detectors, image
artifacts.

NUCLEAR IMAGING
Techinques of funcional imaging. Radiotracers and production of radioisotopes for medical use.
Principles of Single Photon Emission imaging. Scintillation camera.
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography.
Positron Emission Tomography: principle, scanner and its functioning.

IMAGING PARAMETERS AND FILTERING
Quality of diagnostic images. SPatial resolution, contrast. Noise, smoothing filters and
frequency filters.

DOSIMETRY AND RADIATION PROTECTION
Dosimetric quantities. Bragg-Gray theory, CPE conditions.
Main dosimeters. Dose equivalents.

RADIOBIOLOGY
Biological effects of radiation: physical, chymical and biological phases. Water radiolysis.
Cell cycel, mitosys, DNA. Oxigen and bystander effects. DNA damage and cromosomic aberrations, cell death.
Survival curves, linear-quadratic model, dose-effect curves. Relative Biological Efficiency.


RADIATION THERAPY
Rationale, therapy window. Teletherapy units, Xray and electron radiotherapy linac.
Dose to patient: build-up, skin sparing effect, exit dose. Dose computation functions. Isodose curves and corrections. Multiple field irradiation. Volumes definition, organ at risk.
Treatment planning and simulation. Dose-volume histograms.
Special techniques: brachytherapy, gamma-knife, cyberknife. Conformal radiation therapy, multileaf collimators, Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy.

HADRON THERAPY
Rationale, physical bases: interaction of hadron with matter, Bragg peak, straggling. Nuclear fragmentation and effects on the dose to patient. Hadron RBE. Models for dose computation. Hadrontherapy facilities: accelerators, beam lines, passive and active beam spreading systems.
Basics of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

Objectives

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
The course of study is aimed at providing an understanding of the most modern diagnostic and therapeutic techniques involving the use of ionizing radiation.
The educational objectives include the knowledge of the physical principles on which these methods are based, and the knowledge of the functioning and composition of the machines that are used for the delivery of therapeutic sessions or for performing morphological and functional diagnostic imaging.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Students must have understood the problems related to the acquisition of morphological and functional diagnostic images, even in difficult and low contrast conditions, bearing in mind the radiation protection of the patient and the possibility of using particular techniques. Likewise, the field of use of radiotherapeutic techniques must be clear and the students should be able to identify the best solution for specific situations, including cost / benefit evaluation.
The students must also have a good knowledge of the techniques involving the use of ionizing radiation at present days in hospitals.
The verification of knowledge and comprehension skills is done through the presentation of a dissertation on a topic not covered in class and agreed with individual students, and on a final oral exam on the course program.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
At the end of the course, students must be able to judge which type of diagnostic or therapeutic technique is most suitable in specific circumstances, having clear its strengths and applicability.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS:
Students must have developed the ability to perform bibliographic research and select interesting materials, in particular on the WEB. These skills are acquired during the study for exam preparation, deepening some specific topics also through the consultation of articles in scientific journals .


COMMUNICATION SKILLS:
Students must be able to present the diagnostic and therapy methods treated in the course and to understand and present similar ones, learned through bibliographical research and / or study of scientific articles to an audience of specialists and common people.


LEARNING SKILLS:
Students must be able to tackle new fields through independent study. They must acquire the ability to continue their studies in a PhD or medical physics specialization schools.