From the electromagnetic field to light. The Einstein coefficients. Radiative transitions in atoms, line broadening, general information about the laser. Classical fluctuations of the intensity of a source, the different time scales involved. Connection between measurable quantities (absorption, reflectivity, refractive index) and microscopic characteristics of a material. Causal linear response theory: the dispersion relations of Kramers - Kronig. Radiation characteristics of classical coherence of the first and second order. The quantization of the electromagnetic field: the photon. Quantum radiation-matter interaction. . Quantum formulation: coherent states and photon number states. How to change the formalism to the consistency of the first and second order. Differences and similarities.
Field quadrature concept and uncertainty relation between field number / phase. The Young's experiment. The experiment of Hanbury -Brown and Twiss.
The simulation of a source of chaotic radiation
Young's experiment in the original form of 1803
The measurement of the single photon with a photomultiplier, separation of the signal from the noise, different statistics for coherent and incoherent light.
The course aims to provide an advanced preparation of Optics with a critical understanding of the bases of the electromagnetic radiation field from the description of classical physics to the quantum treatment. The educational objectives include advanced knowledge of quantum physics, mathematical methods of physics and some themes of the structure of matter.
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
The aim of the course is to provide an understanding of the conceptual bases of the properties of the electromagnetic field of optical radiation in the classical treatment and of the modifications and peculiarities introduced by the quantum treatment.
The course aims to stimulate those learning skills that enable them to continue to study advanced research topics in a self-directed and autonomous way.
APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
are able to apply their knowledge, understanding and ability to solve problems or new/unfamiliar issues, placed in wider contexts (or interdisciplinary) connected to their field of study