Radioactivity


course ID

Lecturer

CFU

6

Length

14 Weeks

Semester DD

First


Course details

Radioactive decay; valley of stability of nuclei; lifetime; amplitude level and the probability of decay, half-life and specific activity; branching ratio; radioactive decay: daughter activity; daughter activity in special cases; secular equilibrium. Production of radioactive sources (induced radioactivity). Decay schema of radioactive sources. The alpha decay. The nuclear radius. Energy distributions. The beta decay. Energy distribution of the beta spectrum. Properties of the neutrino. Fermi theory. Shape of the beta spectrum and the Curie plot. Selection rules of beta decay. Parity. The conservation of parity in beta decay and the experiment of Wu. The gamma-ray emission. Single
transitions and transitions in cascade. Selection rules. Internal conversion. Nuclear isomerism. The fission and the fusion. The theory of Bohr and Wheeler to treat the fission process. Mechanical analogy of fission. Caloric power of fission. The chain reaction. The nuclear fusion. The origin of the elements. The standard Big Bang. Universe and primordial nucleosynthesis in stars. As a star is born . Evolution of the star. The fusion in the stele and the origin of the elements. The nuclear reactions. Energy balance: Q of the reaction. The cross section. Measurement of cross sections. Interaction of radiation with matter: the charged particles. Loss of energy by ionization. Mass density and mass stopping power.

Objectives

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
Advanced knowledge of the physics of radioactive phenomena; study of quantum theories that describe these phenomena and deepening of the experimental results related to them.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Students will have an very good understanding of radioactive phenomena and related research topics; the verification of knowledge and understanding will be done through oral tests.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
Students will be able to identify fundamentals elements of a physical problem involving radioactive phenomena and will be able to develop theoretical and analytical models to interpret these phenomena.

MAKING JUDGEMENTS:
Students will be able to realize experiment to apply the knowledge of radioactive phenomena. They will also be able to apply the acquired knowledge to perform calculations to interpret the results of the experiments. Moreover, they will have the opportunity to study